本文所列内容在LinodeVultr的VPS上面均测试通过,Debian 7系统。

Windows有自动更新,其实Debian也可以的,小伙伴们跟我来:

这个教程告诉你怎样设置Deban 7进行每天自动更新。

1  配置系统为无人值守更新

为了知晓自动更新的情况,需要配置一下系统邮件,所以需要同时安装bsd-mailx,命令:

apt-get install unattended-upgrades bsd-mailx

你可以通过修改/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades文件来配置自动更新

nano /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades

一般情况下,默认配置是ok的,不过你也可以手工配置一下,比如更新源(默认是stable和security),也可以设置黑名单,让某些软件不被更新,如果更新遇到问题,可以让系统向你发邮件,也可以让系统更新后自动重启,双斜杠是注释语句。内容如下:

// Automatically upgrade packages from these origin patterns
Unattended-Upgrade::Origins-Pattern {
        // Archive or Suite based matching:
        // Note that this will silently match a different release after
        // migration to the specified archive (e.g. testing becomes the
        // new stable).
//      "o=Debian,a=stable";
//      "o=Debian,a=stable-updates";
//      "o=Debian,a=proposed-updates";
        "origin=Debian,archive=stable,label=Debian-Security";
};

// List of packages to not update
Unattended-Upgrade::Package-Blacklist {
//      "vim";
//      "libc6";
//      "libc6-dev";
//      "libc6-i686";
};

// This option allows you to control if on a unclean dpkg exit
// unattended-upgrades will automatically run
//   dpkg --force-confold --configure -a
// The default is true, to ensure updates keep getting installed
//Unattended-Upgrade::AutoFixInterruptedDpkg "false";

// Split the upgrade into the smallest possible chunks so that
// they can be interrupted with SIGUSR1. This makes the upgrade
// a bit slower but it has the benefit that shutdown while a upgrade
// is running is possible (with a small delay)
//Unattended-Upgrade::MinimalSteps "true";

// Install all unattended-upgrades when the machine is shuting down
// instead of doing it in the background while the machine is running
// This will (obviously) make shutdown slower
//Unattended-Upgrade::InstallOnShutdown "true";
// Send email to this address for problems or packages upgrades
// If empty or unset then no email is sent, make sure that you
// have a working mail setup on your system. A package that provides
// 'mailx' must be installed. E.g. "user@example.com"
//Unattended-Upgrade::Mail "root";

// Set this value to "true" to get emails only on errors. Default
// is to always send a mail if Unattended-Upgrade::Mail is set
//Unattended-Upgrade::MailOnlyOnError "true";

// Do automatic removal of new unused dependencies after the upgrade
// (equivalent to apt-get autoremove)
//Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-Unused-Dependencies "false";

// Automatically reboot *WITHOUT CONFIRMATION* if a
// the file /var/run/reboot-required is found after the upgrade
//Unattended-Upgrade::Automatic-Reboot "false";


// Use apt bandwidth limit feature, this example limits the download
// speed to 70kb/sec
//Acquire::http::Dl-Limit "70";

然后创建文件/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/02periodic来启用自动更新

nano /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/02periodic

内容:

// Enable the update/upgrade script (0=disable)
APT::Periodic::Enable "1";

// Do "apt-get update" automatically every n-days (0=disable)
APT::Periodic::Update-Package-Lists "1";

// Do "apt-get upgrade --download-only" every n-days (0=disable)
APT::Periodic::Download-Upgradeable-Packages "1";

// Run the "unattended-upgrade" security upgrade script
// every n-days (0=disabled)
// Requires the package "unattended-upgrades" and will write
// a log in /var/log/unattended-upgrades
APT::Periodic::Unattended-Upgrade "1";

// Do "apt-get autoclean" every n-days (0=disable)
APT::Periodic::AutocleanInterval "7";

ok了,自动更新将以cron job脚本的形式从/etc/cron.daily/apt运行。

这个脚本会将日志记录在/var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades.log里面,像下面的一样,有详细信息:

2014-07-07 17:49:30,878 INFO Initial blacklisted packages:
2014-07-07 17:49:30,880 INFO Starting unattended upgrades script
2014-07-07 17:49:30,880 INFO Allowed origins are: ["('Debian', 'stable')", "('Debian', 'wheezy-security')"]
2014-07-07 17:50:05,222 INFO Packages that are upgraded: apache2 apache2-doc apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-utils apache2.2-bin
  apache2.2-common apt apt-utils base-files dpkg dselect file gnupg gpgv
  libapt-inst1.5 libapt-pkg4.12 libc-bin libc6 libc6:i386 libcurl3:i386
  libdbus-1-3 libdbus-1-3:i386 libgnutls26 libgnutls26:i386 libjbig0:i386
  libmagic1 libnspr4:i386 libnspr4-0d:i386 libsnmp-base libsnmp15 libssl1.0.0
  libssl1.0.0:i386 libwbclient0 libxml2 libxml2:i386 locales locales-all
  multiarch-support openssh-client openssh-server openssl samba samba-common
  snmp tzdata wget whois
2014-07-07 17:50:05,225 INFO Writing dpkg log to '/var/log/unattended-upgrades/unattended-upgrades-dpkg_2014-07-07_17:50:05.224836.log'
2014-07-07 17:51:51,290 INFO All upgrades installed

 2  让系统发送可用更新的通知

这个,需要另个软件包来完成,安装apticron,命令:

apt-get install apticron

然后配置的话,修改/etc/apticron/apticron.conf

nano /etc/apticron/apticron.conf

需要修改的是接收通知的邮箱,可以用多个,空格分割:

EMAIL="root@localhost root@tingtao.org"

 

然后,就没有然后了,像Windows一样每天更新了。

By 听涛

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